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HomePersonal FinanceInvesting Phrases & Terminology for Learners | Chapter 2

Investing Phrases & Terminology for Learners | Chapter 2

Within the first chapter of our investing sequence, we lined among the fundamentals that you might want to find out about investing, like why investing is essential and the way it can profit you. However on this chapter, we’ll be going over essential investing phrases to know earlier than you’ll be able to truly get began in your investing journey. Realizing these phrases will assist make you’re feeling extra assured in your potential to take a position.

Investing your cash could be an effective way to construct your wealth, put together for the long run, and make passive revenue with out having to work further. And the earlier you get began investing, the more cash you can also make. Nevertheless, it’s not all the time that straightforward, particularly if you end up confused by the phrases used to explain funding alternatives. 

However don’t let that discourage you. We’ve put collectively a information with 30 widespread funding phrases you might want to know. Studying the definitions is an effective introduction to investing fundamentals and will help you navigate the method just a little simpler. You should utilize the hyperlinks under to go to a particular set of phrases or hold studying to study all of them.

Kinds of Investments

There are a number of kinds of investments you could come throughout when making an attempt to determine the way to allocate your funds. These are among the most typical:


Bonds are loans offered to governments and companies that pay curiosity to the investor. Municipal bonds are the bonds which are issued particularly by the state or native authorities, whereas different bonds could also be issued by a non-public firm. Bonds are a low-risk funding and could be good for novices.

Alternate-Traded Funds (ETFs)

You could have heard about ETFs, however what’s an ETF in funding phrases? An ETF tracks a particular business, commodity, or index, such because the SPDR S&P 500 (SPY). ETFs are a great way to put money into costly commodities reminiscent of oil, they usually can be an awesome low-risk funding for novices.

Mutual Funds

Mutual funds are essential relating to funding terminology. With a mutual fund, an organization swimming pools cash from a number of buyers and invests that cash in a portfolio. The profit is that you simply don’t have to fret about choosing and selecting what you put money into, which makes it simpler to take a position and observe your investments.

Actual Property

Actual property contains each residential and business properties and could be one of many most profitable funding alternatives. Quick-term actual property buyers could flip homes, whereas long-term buyers depend on appreciation to revenue off of actual property. Understand that actual property investing is usually dearer upfront.


Shares are the most typical investments you hear about, however what’s a inventory? A inventory represents a small portion of an organization, so proudly owning a inventory means you primarily personal a portion of an organization. Buyers oftentimes focus primarily on an organization’s web revenue when deciding which shares supply one of the best worth. 

Inventory Phrases

In the case of investing in shares, there are some phrases you’ll want to grasp so as to navigate the method:

Bear Market

A bear market is likely one of the funding phrases to explain inventory market situations. Extra particularly, a bear market is a interval the place inventory costs are falling, and investing is dangerous however probably very rewarding.

Bull Market

Quite the opposite, a bull market is one the place inventory costs are rising, so investments aren’t as dangerous however don’t present the identical alternative for a big reward.

Widespread Inventory

Widespread inventory is what most individuals consider after they consider shares. In contrast to most well-liked shares, widespread shares don’t have particular permissions relating to dividend funds and liquidation. Should you’re planning on investing in shares, you’ll in all probability be coping with widespread shares.


Dividends are funds made to shareholders of sure firms. In an effort to obtain these funds, an investor should personal inventory earlier than the ex-dividend date. That is primarily a reward for investing cash in an organization. Dividend yield is one other essential investing time period that it’s best to know. Dividend yield is a ratio that buyers can use to anticipate how a lot an organization can pay out to shareholders in dividends every year. 

Market Indexes

A market index is a portfolio used to observe the monetary market by analyzing knowledge from particular subsets of firms. Examples of market indexes embrace the Dow Jones Industrial Common (DJIA) and Nasdaq Composite Index.

Most well-liked Inventory

Most well-liked inventory is just like widespread inventory, besides shareholders get particular advantages reminiscent of greater dividend funds and claims to property if the corporate is liquidated. These shares are much less unstable however much less worthwhile.


A share is a unit of possession, whether or not that’s a share in an organization or in an asset. Shareholders are entitled to sure advantages, together with capital beneficial properties when the corporate or asset will increase in worth and dividend funds when it makes cash.

Quick Promoting

In primary funding phrases, quick promoting is betting on a safety to drop. Quick sellers borrow a safety and promote it on the open market, with the hopes that it’s going to drop in worth to allow them to buy it for much less sooner or later and repay the mortgage.

Inventory Alternate

A inventory alternate is a spot the place stockbrokers and merchants should buy and promote shares of shares, bonds, and different investments. Totally different inventory exchanges have completely different itemizing necessities and thus supply completely different shares.

Inventory Market

The time period “inventory market” is close to the highest of any funding dictionary. The inventory market refers to all of the exchanges the place shopping for and promoting happen, however may be used to consult with the present situation of inventory costs typically.

Retirement Investing Phrases

Retirement accounts embrace or maintain investments (inventory, bonds, ETFs, mutual funds, and a few various investments) particularly for the aim of use at retirement, often after age 59 ½. Attempting to determine the way to go about investing in your retirement? Listed below are among the primary phrases you’ll want perceive:


A 401k is a retirement plan provided by employers the place you contribute cash every pay interval, and your employer could match as much as a specific amount of your 401(okay) contributions. You’ll be able to withdraw this cash penalty-free starting at age 59 ½.

Particular person Retirement Account (IRA)

Each funding glossary ought to embrace particular person retirement accounts, or IRAs. An IRA is sort of a 401k however it doesn’t contain an employer. You merely contribute cash frequently, permitting that cash to construct up till you’ll be able to withdraw it with out penalties. There are additionally a number of kinds of IRAs that try to be acquainted with.

Roth IRA

A Roth IRA is a kind of IRA the place you contribute cash that’s already been taxed, which suggests your cash isn’t taxed upon withdrawal like it’s with a conventional IRA. If you wish to begin investing for retirement immediately, a Roth IRA is a straightforward approach to get began.

Rollover IRA

With a rollover IRA, you’ll be able to roll funds from a earlier employer-sponsored plan over to an IRA. This lets you keep away from paying any penalties whereas preserving the tax-deferred standing of your retirement plan.

Retirement Planning

Retirement planning is the method of making a monetary plan and investing in your retirement. An excellent retirement plan features a mixture of employer-sponsored retirement accounts, particular person retirement accounts, and different investments. It’s finest to work with an funding advisor to determine one of the best low-risk investments in your retirement.

Different Investing Phrases

There are a variety of completely different features to investing, which suggests there’s specialised terminology used, together with:


“Ask” and “bid” are essential funding phrases. The ask is the quantity a vendor is prepared to just accept for a safety, whereas the bid is the quantity an investor is prepared to pay for it. The higher the unfold between these two numbers, the extra liquid an asset is.


The time period “asset” is used to explain any merchandise that could be used to provide extra revenue or which will recognize in worth over time. Issues like shares, retirement accounts, and actual property are widespread examples of property within the funding world. Having a strong understanding of your property and the way to use them to your benefit is essential.

Asset Allocation

The aim with asset allocation is to divide your funding portfolio into completely different classes, with some in shares, some in money, and a few in bonds. It’s essential to diversify your investments on this means, however you additionally could wish to diversify inside every of those three classes.

Capital Good points/Losses

Capital beneficial properties and losses consult with the cash you achieve or lose by means of investing. Any time you promote an asset for greater than you paid for it, that’s thought-about a capital achieve. While you promote an asset for a decrease quantity than what you initially paid, that’s a capital loss. As an investor, you should pay capital beneficial properties taxes on capital beneficial properties earned from most kinds of investments.


Diversification refers back to the means you unfold your funding portfolio out. It’s sensible to put money into a number of completely different firms and industries, in addition to making various kinds of investments (shares, bonds, retirement accounts, and so forth.) to be sure you’re not counting on a single funding.

Funding Portfolio

Your funding portfolio contains all of the investments you’ve made, together with retirement accounts, shares, valuable metals, commodities, and extra. It’s essential to control your funding portfolio so you’ll be able to be sure you’re diversifying your investments and getting essentially the most out of your cash.

Monetary Advisor

Should you’re simply getting began with investing, it could be finest to work with a monetary advisor who understands all of the funding phrases and will help you select sensible, low-risk investments. Your monetary advisor will help you create a various portfolio and plan for retirement, so that you don’t have to fret about studying all of the ins and outs of investing.


The liquidity of an asset refers to how simply that asset could be transformed into money. The upper the liquidity of an asset, the faster and simpler it’s to show that asset into money. Some examples of liquid property embrace mutual funds, money or different types of forex, financial institution accounts, and accounts receivable.

Actual Property Funding Trusts

Should you like the concept of a mutual fund however would fairly put money into actual property, an actual property funding belief (REIT) presents an identical resolution targeted on actual property. Actual property trusts use cash from a number of buyers to put money into actual property, which additionally they function to make sure it generates revenue. All you must do is make investments just a little cash and a REIT will deal with the remaining.


Volatility refers to how probably it’s that an funding stays secure. Unstable investments are more durable to foretell and include a better danger, whereas secure investments aren’t as dangerous however don’t supply as a lot potential for revenue.

Go Ahead and Make Knowledgeable Investments

Now that you’ve got a greater understanding of investing terminology, you’re extra ready to make choices about the place to place your cash. This data may even enable you get a greater deal with on managing your investments. Along with taking the time to study extra in regards to the investments you’re involved in and getting recommendation when wanted, you may also use instruments like Mint to observe your investments, so you’ll be able to guarantee your cash is working most successfully for you.

So now that we’ve lined primary investing terminology for novices, you’ll be able to confidently transfer onto the following chapter within the sequence, the place we’ll be speaking about how investing can profit you. Proceed studying our investing sequence to study extra about the advantages of investing, the various kinds of investments, and extra.

That is for informational functions solely and shouldn’t be construed as authorized, funding, credit score restore, debt administration, or tax recommendation.  It is best to search the help of knowledgeable for tax and funding recommendation.

Third-party hyperlinks are offered as a comfort and for informational functions solely. Intuit accepts no accountability for the accuracy, legality, or content material on these websites.


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